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Resonant and Nonresonant Interactions in Cold Quantum Gases

TitleResonant and Nonresonant Interactions in Cold Quantum Gases
Publication TypeThesis
Year of Publication2007
AuthorsWachter, J
Abstract

In the first part of this thesis, we present a unified kinetic theory that describes the finite-temperature, non-equilibrium dynamics of a Bose-Einstein condensed gas interacting with a thermal cloud in a trap. This theory includes binary interactions to second order in the interaction potential and reduces to a diagonal quantum Boltzmann equation for Bogoliubov quasiparticles. The Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov interactions include the pairing field and are expressed as many-body T matrices to second order. The interactions thus include the correct renormalized scattering physics. This renormalized theory is automatically gapless. Thus, the excited Bogoliubov modes are naturally orthogonal to the condensate ground state. This kinetic theory is a complete second-order theory that reduces to the Gross-Pitaevskii equation and the quantum Boltzmann equation in the respective limits and thus is capable of describing the system over a wide temperature range.

In the second part, we consider a many-body theory of a dilute Fermi gas near a Feshbach resonance. Experiments explore the crossover physics between the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieer (BCS) superfluidity of a two-spin Fermi gas, and the Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of composite bosons. We consider correlations between a composite boson and a fermion pair and show that such correlations are the minimal ingredients needed in a many-body theory to generate the correct boson-boson scattering length in the Bose-Einstein limit of the crossover.

We also use imaginary-time propagation to find zero-temperature ground states in the BCS/BEC crossover. A cumulant expansion allows us to systematically include higher-order interactions between bosons and fermions. In particular, we calculate the Hartree term across the resonance. We further apply the cumulant-expansion method to thermal fermions and composite bosons interacting above the transition temperature in the normal phase. We numerically calculate the full time dependence in ramps across the resonance in this regime and find different two-body and many-body time scales in the system. We calculate molecular conversion efficiencies as a function of temperature and phase-space density, and find good agreement with results from JILA potassium experiments.