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A Circularly-Polarized Optical Dipole Trap and Other Developments in Laser Trapping of Atoms

TitleA Circularly-Polarized Optical Dipole Trap and Other Developments in Laser Trapping of Atoms
Publication TypeThesis
Year of Publication1999
AuthorsCorwin, KL
Abstract

Several innovations in laser trapping and cooling of alkali atoms are described. These topics share a common motivation to develop techniques for efficiently manipulating cold atoms. Such advances facilitate sensitive precision measurements such as parity non-conservation and -decay asymmetry in large trapped samples, even when only small quantities of the desired species are available.

First, a cold, bright beam of Rb atoms is extracted from a magneto-optical trap (MOT) using a very simple technique. This beam has a flux of 5 x 109 atoms/s and a velocity of 14 m/s, and up to 70% of the atoms in the MOT were transferred to the atomic beam. Next, a highly efficient MOT for radioactive atoms is described, in which more than 50% of 221Fr atoms contained in a vapor cell are loaded into a MOT. Measurements were also made of the 221Fr 7 2P1/2 and 7 2P3/2 energies and hyperfine constants. To perform these experiments, two schemes for stabilizing the frequency of the light from a diode laser were developed and are described in detail.

Finally, a new type of trap is described and a powerful cooling technique is demonstrated. The circularly polarized optical dipole trap provides large samples of highly spin-polarized atoms, suitable for many applications. Physical processes that govern the transfer of large numbers of atoms into the trap are described, and spinpolarization is measured to be 98(1)%. In addition, the trap breaks the degeneracy of the atomic spin states much like a magnetic trap does. This allows for RF and microwave cooling via both forced evaporation and a Sisyphus mechanism. Preliminary application of these techniques to the atoms in the circularly polarized dipole trap has successfully decreased the temperature by a factor of 4 while simultaneously increasing phase space density.