I will discuss orbital physics of fermions and bosons in one dimensional optical lattices. In a system of one dimensional p-orbital bosons, various phases, including anti-ferro-orbital Mott, anti-ferro-orbital superfluid and para-orbital superfluid, have been found. Signatures of phase transitions, in particular time-reversal symmetry breaking, in time-of-flight image will be discussed. I will show that a fermionic ladder system composed of s and p orbitals supports a topological state featuring fractional defects. An equivalent of spin-orbit coupling naturally arises, not requiringartificial gauge field, in this quantum orbital ladder when the s and p orbital states are identified as a pseudo-spin 1/2. The dimensional crossover of this ladder system and a flat-band protected by parity will be shown. The flat-band makes it plausible to study strongly correlated physics in this system.